Secondary analyses determined the wellbeing and personality characteristics of each loneliness profile. The profiles were found to be ordered from ‘high-loneliness’ to ‘low-loneliness’ with the ‘superficially connected’ profile closer to ‘high-loneliness’ and the ‘appreciated outsiders’ profile closer to ‘low-loneliness’ (see figure). As shown in the figure, the ‘high-loneliness’ profile had low wellbeing (i.e. low self-rated health,
low self-esteem, low life satisfaction, low perceived social support, and high psychological distress), low extraversion, and high neuroticism. In contrast, the ‘low-loneliness’ profile had the opposite, with the other profiles ordered in between. While the loneliness profiles are ordered in the figure, they do not provide a loneliness spectrum due to the sharp discontinuity between the ‘superficially connected’ and ‘appreciated outsiders’ profiles.
The NZAVS was not designed to evaluate loneliness and, as such, the measures do not capture the ‘attachment’ aspect of loneliness. Furthermore, the fifth wave of the NZAVS was not totally representative of the New Zealand population, with an over-representation of NZ Europeans (85.5%) and females (62.8%).